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Jatropha Plantation

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” We can definitely find productive employment for all the 36 million people by launching certain missions like Bio-Diesel generation through plants such as , Pongamia Pinnata on Dry Land and Herbal Farming in the available 33 million hectares of waste land earmarked for cultivation.”

Dr. ABDUL KALAM

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WHY JATROPHA CURCAS?

Introduction :

Being Leading organisation in Jatropha Plantation in India on Commercial basis we proposes draf varieties like Jatropha, Karanj as a Biofuel Feedstock on Barren Land.

Jatropha Curcas :

Jatropha Plantation

Jatropha Curcas or Ratanjot, Van Erand, Moghal Erand offers great hope of being developed as a rich source of Biodiesel. It is very profitable crop. It can be cultivate in stony, gradient sandy oil and in the land of tiny deepness. The oil extracted from the seeds of Jatropha is known as Biodiesel. The oil extracted from the seeds is non-edible and is used in making soaps, cosmetics, colors, candles and wool. The oil cake is used in making plastics and synthetic fibers. Jatropha is rich in medicinal properties and is used in treatment of skin-diseases, paralysis, toothache, stomachache etc. Its mixture with cow urine is used as a Bio-Insecticide.

Botanical Features:

It is a small tree or shrub with smooth gray bark, which exudes a whitish colored, watery, latex when cut. Normally, it grows between three and five meters in height, but can attain a height of up to eight or ten meters under favourable conditions.

Leaves : It has large green to pale-green leaves, alternate to sub-opposite, three-to fivelobed with a spiral phyllotaxis.

Flowers : The petiole length ranges between 6-23 mm. The inflorescence is formed in the leaf axil. Flowers are formed terminally, individually, with female flowers usually slightly larger and occurs in the hot seasons. In conditions where continuous growth occurs, an unbalance of pistillate or staminate flower production results in a higher number of female flowers.

Fruits : Fruits are produced in winter when the shrub is leafless, or it may produce several crops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures are sufficiently high. Each inflorescence yields a bunch of approximately 10 or more ovoid fruits. A three, bi-valved cocci is formed after the seeds mature and the fleshy exocarp dries.

Seeds : The seeds become mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow, after two to four months from fertilization. The blackish, thin shelled seeds are oblong and resemble small castor seeds.

Medicinal Plant : The latex of Jatropha curcas (VanaErand or RatanJyot) contains an alkaloid known as “jatrophine” which is believed to have anti-cancerous properties. It is also used as an external application for skin diseases and rheumatism and for sores on domestic livestock. In additon, the tender twigs of the plant are used for cleaning teeth, while the juice of the leaf is used as an external application for piles. Finally, the roots are reported to be used as an antidote for snake-bites.

 Jatropha

Types of Lands where It can Grow With advantage and Potential of Plantation. The list of advantages mentioned above make Jatropha plantation very attractive on the kinds of lands mentioned below. The potential for coverage of each kind of land in India, is as follows.

Forests cover 69 Million hectares of which 38 million hectare is dense forest and 31 million hectare is understocked. Of this 14million hectares of forests are under the Joint Forestry Management. About 3.0 million hectare (notional) of land in forests should easily come under Jatropha curcas (VanaErand or RatanJyot) plantation.

142 million hectare of land is under agriculture. It will be reasonable to assume that farmers will like to put a hedge around 30 million hectare of their fields for protection of their crops. It will amount to 3.0 million hectare (notional) of Jatropha curcas (VanaErand or RatanJyot) plantation.

The cultivators are expected to adopt it by way of agro- forestry. Considerable land is held by absentee land lords who will be attracted to Jatropha curcas (VanaErand or RatanJyot) as it does not require looking after and gives a net income of Rs 15,000 per hectare. Two Million Hectare of notional plantation is expected.

Cultivable fallow lands are reported to be 24 million hectare of which current fallow lands are 10 million ha and other fallows are 14 million hectares. Ten percent of such land (2.4 million hectare) is expected to come under Jatropha curcas (VanaErand or RatanJyot) plantation. On wastelands under Integrated Watershed Development and other poverty alleviation program of Ministry of Rural Development a potential of 2 million hectare of plantation is assessed.

On vast stretches of public lands along railway tracks, roads and canals. One million hectare of notional coverage with Jatropha curcas (VanaErand or RatanJyot) is a reasonable assessment. On the basis of above analysis it should be reasonable to assume that with proper extension, research, availability of planting material and funds plantation of Jatropha curcas (VanaErand or RatanJyot) on 13.4 million hectares of land is feasible in the immediate future. Institutional finance for private plantation and governmental allocation for public lands will have to be provided. Once success is achieved on the lands described above it should be possible to include very low fertility soils which are classified uncultivable in this program. A significant proportion of such lands can also be brought under Jatropha curcas (VanaErand or RatanJyot) plantation in an economically feasible manner. It will result in their (degraded lands) rehabilitation also.

Jatropha Crop Cycle

Jatropha Life Cycle

The comparison of properties of Jatropha Curcas (VanaErand or RatanJyot) Oil and standard specifications of Diesel oil

Specification Jatropha Curcas Oil Diesel
Specific gravity 0.9186 0.82/0.84
Flash point 240/110°C 50°C
Carbon residue 0.64 0.15 or less
Cetane value 51.0 50.0 up
Distillation point 295°C 350°C
Kinematics Viscosity 50.73 cs 2.7 cs up
Sulfur 0.13 % 1.2 % or less
Calorific value 9,470 kcal/kg 10,170 kcal/kg
Pour point 8°C 10°C
Colour 4.0 4 or less
Viscosity (cp) (30°C) 52.6 (5.51) 3.60

Reference Links 
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1) Read Wikipedia Article – Biofuel in India

2) Time of India Article – Fifteen-year plan for Jatropha plantation in arid districts

3) Watch Youtube : ShirkeBiofuel Presentation

4) Visit Dmoz Directory: Jatropha Plantation in India